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Common Problems that can Happen with Baby Chicks

This page is used to help you solve any problems you may be experiencing with your chicks.

CROP DOESN'T EMPTY

  • When hand feeding, a bird should not be fed until the crop has been emptied. If a crop is not emptying and more food is put in, all you will be doing is feeding a possible infection and making things worse.
  • Infection - Bacterial, viral, fungal. Potent Brew, Survive, See vet quickly.
  • Crop and gut stasis - Systemic disease. Visit vet . Use Potent Brew and Survive in the mean time.
  • Food or chick too cold - Food should be fed at between 38-41oC (100-105oF). Some species of African Greys prefer hotter Hand Rearing Food 41-43oC (105-110oF) and may refuse cooler food. Note. If the Hand Rearing Food is fed too hot it may cause severe crop burn. Click here for chick brooding temperatures.
  • Chick dehydrated - A dehydrated chick will look redder than usual, and the breast-bone may be prominent. Give Guardian Angel, check brooder temperature and humidity, check percentage solids in Hand Rearing Food (may be too high).
  • Too high or low % solids in the Hand Rearing Formula. - It is much more likely that the percentage solids in the Hand Rearing Food is too high than too low. In other words, not enough water has been added to the formula. It is also important that the formula is stirred each time it is drawn up into the syringe or spoon as settlement of the mixture can cause changes in the percentage solids of the Hand Rearing Food.
  • Excessive dietary fat/protein - Check the suitability of the diet for the chick or feed less. For African greys, amazons, cockatoos, cockatiels, poicephalus, pionus and budgerigars use Low Energy Hand Rearing Food . For macaws, eclectus and some other species, use High Energy Hand Rearing Food.
  • Stretched crop due to overfeeding - Feed more often with smaller amounts. Keep a close eye out for signs of 'sour-crop' (air in crop) and use Potent Brew every feed as a preventative action.
  • Foreign body consumption, impaction - Gently massage the crop and its contents, if there are any hard lumps the crop may need to be flushed out. (seek veterinary advice if unsure how). If the whole content seems to be a solid mass, introduce a small amount of water and Potent Brew to the crop and massage the lump until it breaks up. If the chick has been this way since the last feed, use Guardian Angel or a watery solution of Survive instead of water.
  • (Some chicks never completely empty)

CROP EMPTYING TOO FAST

  • Hypermotile intestine - diarrhea. Potent Brew, Guardian Angel
  • Low % solids - Check the mixing instructions of the hand-rearing food, use less water. Make sure the formula is mixed well each time it is taken from the bowl.
  • Inadequate food volume - Feed larger amounts. If chick becomes fat, use a lower energy hand-rearing food.
  • (Older chicks may empty rapidly and be normal and well nourished)

CHICK NOT GROWING

  • Infection - Potent Brew, Survive (can be mixed in with a hand-rearing formula up to a level of 25% Survive to Hand Rearing Food). Visit vet.
  • Environmental or dietary contamination - Wash all surfaces and utensils with Enviroclens (1:50 solution). Wash hands before handling chicks with Enviroclens Handscrub.
  • Malnutrition (diet inappropriate for species) - Change diet/hand-rearing formula. Use Potent Brew and Feast last thing at night for parent reared budgies and canaries. For African greys, amazons, cockatoos, cockatiels, poicephalus, pionus and budgerigars use a Low Energy (high protein) Hand Rearing Food. For macaws, eclectus and some other species, use a High Energy (low protein) Hand Rearing Food.
  • Inadequate food intake (Inadequate volume and/or feeding frequency) - Increase as necessary.
  • Chick too cold - As a rough guide, if the chick is huddled in a corner with other chicks, it is cold. If the chick is panting, perhaps dehydrated, it is too hot..
  • Chick too hot - Dehydration. Guardian Angel / Survive
  • Click here for brooder temperatures
  • Congenital or incubator related problems

CHICK VOMITING

  • Normal crop shrinkage - weaning, ensure that as wide a range as possible of solid foods is available at all times.
  • Food too hot or cold - Food should be fed at between 38-41o C (100-105oF). Some species of African Greys prefer hotter Hand Rearing Food 41-43oC (105-110oF) and may refuse cooler food. Note. If the Hand Rearing Food is fed too hot it may cause severe crop burn
  • Overfeeding - obese. Check that the correct Hand Rearing Food is being used. Feed smaller amounts and/or less frequently.
  • Infection - Bacterial/viral/yeast. Potent Brew, Survive , Enviroclens (1:50 solution). Enviroclens Handscrub. Visit vet quickly
  • Polyoma Viral Infection - Survive. Visit vet
  • Foreign body Ingestion - Visit vet, Survive, Potent Brew
  • Food allergy - Try to pin-point the food item, veterinary advice may be needed. Survive, Potent Brew

CHICK WON'T EAT

  • Food too hot or too cold - Food should be fed at between 38-41oC (100-105oF). Some species of African Greys prefer warmer Hand Rearing Food 41-43oC (105-110oF) and may refuse cooler food. Note. If the Hand Rearing Food is fed too hot it may cause severe crop burn
  • Chick stressed - Frightened. Remove cause of stress. Keeping chick in a dark, enclosed area may help. Potent Brew
  • Chick thinks its ready to wean - Ensure as wide a range as possible of solid foods are available to the chick at all times.
  • Lock jaw - Can be caused by vitamin deficiency. If using a home-made Hand Rearing Food use Daily Essentials3 or add Formula Plus to all your hand rearing foods / Visit vet
  • Chick doesn't like taste of food - Potent Brew, change food.
  • Chick is overweight - Check that the correct Hand Rearing Food is being used. Check mixing instructions. Feed smaller amount and/or less frequently.

CHICK BEGS EXCESSIVELY

  • Malnutrition - Check that the correct Hand Rearing Food is being used. For parent fed birds use ProBoost SuperMax, Daily Essentials3 , CalciBoost and Potent Brew in softfood. Fill the chick's crop with Potent Brew and Feast last thing at night if parent-reared.
  • Inadequate feeding volume or frequency - increase amount and/or frequency
  • Low % Solids - Check the mixing instructions of the hand-rearing food, use less water. Make sure the formula is mixed well each time it is taken from the bowl. (i.e. avoid settling)
  • Chick too cold - As a rough guide, if the chick is huddled in a corner with other chicks, it is cold. If the chick is panting, perhaps dehydrated, it is too hot
  • Kidney disease - Visit vet
  • Continuous light - too long photo-period
  • Too high protein - Check diet. Protein levels should be no higher than 22%
  • Chick spoiled - Be more firm with the chick. Do not give in.
  • Infection -viral/bacterial/yeast. Potent Brew, Survive. Clean surfaces and utensils with Enviroclens (1:50 solution). Clean hands with Enviroclens Handscrub
  • Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease - Young chicks that are not yet feathered and beg for food even though the crop is full may be suffering from Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease. Isolate bird and Visit vet

CHICK TOO THIN

  • Malnutrition - diet inappropriate for species. Check hand-rearing food and change if necessary. For African greys, amazons, cockatoos, cockatiels, poicephalus, pionus and budgerigars use a Low Energy (high protein) Hand Rearing Food . For macaws, eclectus and some other species, use High Energy (low protein) Hand Rearing Food.
  • Inadequate food volume - Increase amount of food given.
  • Inadequate feeding frequency - Increase frequency of feeding.
  • Infection or other illness - Potent Brew, Survive, Saniclens in drinking water. If hand-rearing. Clean surfaces and utensils with Enviroclens (1:50 solution). Clean hands with Enviroclens Handscrub. Visit vet if condition persists.
  • Low % solids (hand-rearing) - Check the mixing instructions of the hand-rearing food, use less water. Make sure the formula is mixed well each time it is taken from the bowl. (i.e. to avoid settling).
  • Stunting - Probably due to malnutrition, possibly brooding too long at a high temperature.

CHICK TOO FAT

  • Food too high in calories for species - Check hand-rearing food and change if necessary. For African greys, amazons, cockatoos, cockatiels, poicephalus, pionus and budgerigars use Low Energy (high protein) Hand Rearing Food. For macaws, eclectus and some other species, use High Energy (low protein) Hand Rearing Food.
  • Excessive volume or frequency of feeding - Gradually reduce to appropriate level.

CHICK PALE

  • Too cold - Adjust brooder temperature accordingly.
  • Sudden blood loss or internal or intestinal hemorrhage - Visit vet quickly
  • Chick in shock - Determine source of shock, Visit vet if necessary. Potent Brew, Survive
  • Umbrella cockatoo chicks are often pale at 2-3 weeks of age
  • Yolk-sac poisoning - When hand-rearing, the yolk should be fully absorbed before feeding takes place. The yolk can be seen a yellow-orange patch in the abdomen. Whilst yolk is still being absorbed droppings will be green and translucent. Droppings should be clear urates for several hours before feeding with Hand-rearing food is attempted. Guardian Angel should be given at this time to prevent dehydration.

CHICK SKIN TOO RED

  • Too hot - Lower temperature of brooder
  • Infection - Potent Brew. The red coloring is likely to be an indication of blood poisoning, it is advisable to Visit vet as soon as possible.
  • Dehydration - Chick may also appear 'wizened'. Give Guardian Angel in drinking water. It may be necessary to crop feed a warm water/ Guardian Angel solution. If hand-rearing, check the percentage solid mix of hand-rearing food and make sure the mixture is stirred well each time a bird is fed. Ensure that the brooder is at the correct temperature and humidity for the age of the chick.
  • Inadequate subcutaneous fat - stunting. Probably due to malnutrition, possibly brooding too long at a high temperature

DRY SKIN

  • Dehydration - Chick may also have redder skin than normal. Give Guardian Angel in drinking water. It may be necessary to crop feed a warm water/ Guardian Angel solution. If hand-rearing, check the percentage solid mix of hand-rearing food and make sure the mixture is stirred well each time a bird is fed. Ensure that the brooder is at the correct temperature and humidity for the age of the chick.
  • Low environmental humidity - Put a container of water in the brooder. If there is already one present, use a larger dish to increase the surface area of the water rather then the volume. Reduce ventilation.
  • Excessive ventilation in brooder - Close ventilation flaps.
  • Low dietary fat - Change diet to a higher energy formula.
  • Malnutrition - Low fat diets
  • Often seen in normal chicks of some species i.e. eclectus

BEAK MALFORMED

  • Congenital abnormality
  • Improper handling/hand-feeding - review handling/feeding technique.
  • Improper Calcium/Phosphorus ratio - ensure that if supplements are used, they contain no phosphorous. Birdcare Company supplements contain no added phosphorous. Use CalciBoost to increase the amount of calcium in the diet. The ratio should be about 3:1 calcium to phosphorous. It is much better to have more calcium than necessary than insufficient.
  • Injury - Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel
  • Vitamin D deficiency - Unlikely if using a commercially formulated hand-rearing food. If parent reared or using home made Hand Rearing Food use Daily Essentials3 in the food..

SPLAY LEG

  • Congenital abnormality
  • Calcium deficiency. Use CalciBoost 5 times a week in egg-food or hand rearing food
  • Inadequate bedding/slippery surface - Use soft tissue for the first week so that droppings can be monitored. Then move on to wood-shavings. Do not use wire with chicks of this age.
  • Injury - Visit vet , Potent Brew, Guardian Angel
  • Vitamin D deficiency - unlikely in a commercially formulated hand-rearing food. If parent reared or using home-made Hand-rearing food add Daily Essentials3 to the food

CROOKED TOES

  • Congenital abnormality
  • Possible dietary deficiency in parents - Review the diet. Ensure supplements, if any, are being used correctly.
  • Standing on hard flat surfaces - cockatoos. Supply a number of perches of varying widths.
  • Inadequate dietary Calcium - CalciBoost

CROOKED NECK/BACK

  • Congenital abnormality - possibly hereditary
  • Inadequate dietary Calcium - CalciBoost
  • Injury - Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel

CHICK WON'T SIT UP

  • Normal in some species
  • Injury - fracture. Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel
  • Inappropriate bedding - slippery. Use soft tissue for the first week so that droppings can be monitored. Then move on to wood-shavings. Do not use wire with chicks of this age.
  • Fear
  • Calcium Deficiency - CalciBoost

CHICK LAYS ON BACK

  • Normal in some species
  • Neurological problem - Possibly due to calcium deficiency. CalciBoost
  • Fear or fright response in some older chicks

CHICK THROWS HEAD OVER BACK

  • Crooked neck - congenital or developmental. CalciBoost
  • Neurological problem - CalciBoost. Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel

BLOODY BEDDING

(See also Dark (wine colored) stains on bedding)

  • Abrasion of skin of feet and wing tips - Review bedding material. Paper toweling can be too rough for young chicks. Check for rough/sharp edges in brooder.
  • Low environmental humidity - Put a container of water in the brooder. If there is already one present, use a larger dish to increase the surface area of the water rather then the volume. Reduce ventilation.
  • Abrasive bedding - rough toweling
  • Hyper-excitable chick
  • Blood in droppings- Potent Brew. Examine abdomen for dark lines and/or patches / Visit vet.
  • Injury - Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel if necessary.
  • Polyoma infection - Visit vet, Potent Brew, Guardian Angel.

DARK (WINE COLOURED) STAINS ON BEDDING

  • Normal Metabolite in urine of some species (Greys, Amazons, Pionus), usually occurs when bird is kept on paper towels.

CHICK EATS BEDDING

  • May be associated with malnutrition - Review diet. Correct as necessary.
  • Inappropriate bedding - Change bedding
  • Inadequate feeding - Hunger. Check that correct Hand Rearing Food is being used. Feed larger amounts and/or more frequently.
  • Ready to wean - ensure that as wide a range of food as possible is available to the chick at all times.

FOOD PASTED TO CHICKS FACE

  • Sloppy feeding
  • Inadequate cleaning - Use a damp cloth or swap to remove food with warm water.
  • Chick regurgitating on itself or cage mates - Link to Chick vomiting problems.

ABDOMINAL DISTENSION

  • Normal in parent raised chicks
  • Chick too fat - Ensure correct Hand Rearing Food is being used. Check the frequency and amount being fed.
  • Liver enlarged - Infection, Coccidiosis, protein level too high, poisoning. Potent Brew, Survive, Visit vet.
  • Infection - Potent Brew, Guardian Angel and visit vet.
  • Fatty liver - review diet. Potent Brew, Daily Essentials3, Visit vet
  • Congenital heart defect
  • Congenital liver defect
  • Proventricular dilation - Possibly due to Megabacteria. Guardian Angel and Visit vet
  • Constipation - pasted vent Gently clean vent with cotton swabs moistened with warm saline solution. Vent can sometimes be clogged from the inside and fecal matter can often be seen through the skin of the birds abdomen just above the vent. Use a very small cotton swab with warm water or a sterile lubricating jelly and insert gently into the vent. If blocked, droppings should follow as the swab is removed. There may be a blockage further up in the digestive tract. Use Potent Brew, Guardian Angel and visit vet.

LESIONS IN MOUTH

  • Candidiasis - Potent Brew, Survive and visit vet
  • Bacterial stomatitis - Potent Brew. Visit vet (if antibiotics advised, used Potent Brew and Guardian Angel after the antibiotic course has been finished)
  • Vitamin A deficiency - Visit vet for injections, then use Daily Essentials to prevent reoccurrence
  • Pox virus infection - Potent Brew, Survive and visit vet
  • Bite wounds from siblings - If the wounds seem deep or are not healing, visit vet. If anti-biotic's prescribed, use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel after finishing the course.
  • Trichomoniasis (also known as Canker) - Seek veterinary advice

CROP FEELS THICK AND DOUGHY

  • Candidiasis - Potent Brew, Survive and visit vet
  • Dehydration - Chick may also have redder skin than normal. Give Guardian Angel in drinking water. It may be necessary to crop feed a warm water/ Guardian Angel solution. If hand-rearing, check the percentage solid mix of hand rearing food and make sure the mixture is stirred well each time a bird is fed. Ensure that the brooder is at the correct temperature and humidity for the age of the chick.
  • Crop stasis
  • Yeast infection - Potent Brew and visit vet if persistent.
  • Too high % solids - Check the percentage solid mix of Hand-rearing food and make sure the mixture is stirred well each time a bird is fed.
  • Ingested bedding - Seek vets advice , crop may need emptying.

DARK LINES VISIBLE ON ABDOMEN

  • Dark intestinal contents (often hemorrhagic) - Potent Brew, Survive and visit vet
  • Infection - Potent Brew, Guardian Angel and visit vet, if antibiotics are prescribed wait until the course is finished before using Potent Brew.

SWELLING/SCAB AT UMBILICUS

  • Poor Umbilical seal - Keep area clean. Sometimes a small part of the yolk sac may remain outside the umbilicus. This will dry up and fall off naturally. Do NOT pull it off even when dry as this will damage the tissue below. If there is any sign of bleeding, oozing or redness, Seek vets advice.
  • Infection - Swelling, oozing, redness. Potent Brew, Guardian Angel and visit vet. If antibiotics prescribed, use wait until course is finished before using Potent Brew.
  • Normal umbilical Scab - drops off when 3-10 days old

RED MASS, INTESTINE PROTRUDING FROM RECTUM

  • Visit vet.

TOES SWOLLEN OR CONSTRICTED

  • Twine-threads wrapped around digits - Inappropriate bedding material, remove twine if possible, Vets advice may be needed.
  • Constricted toe syndrome - Cause is unknown. Possibly due to bacterial infection or low humidity brooding. Massaging may help to improve circulation. Amputation may be necessary. Visit vet.

EYES SWOLLEN

  • Infection - Visit vet. Use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel after any course of antibiotics.
  • Foreign body - Unless you are familiar with the practice of washing the eye with appropriate fluids get advice from a vet.
  • Stunted - eyes appear prominent
  • Congenital deformity with prominent eyes or enlarged

EYES FAIL TO OPEN AT PROPER TIME

  • Stunted
  • Lids sealed - low humidity. Increase the surface area of the water in the brooder.
  • Congenital abnormality

EARS FULL OF WHITE MATERIAL

  • Stunted
  • Infection - Visit vet. Use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel after any course of antibiotics.

DELAYED FEATHER EMERGENCE

  • Stunted
  • Malnutrition
  • PBFD (Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease) - Visit vet . Commonly affects Cockatoos and Eclectus parrots but has been seen in most species. Hard to identify in young chicks except as excessive begging when the crop is full. In birds that are ready to wean or have been weaned symptoms may be as follows: abnormal feather growth, slow crops, constant bacterial infections, and beak lesions.
  • Polyoma virus infection - Visit vet. Symptoms include crop stasis, bruising, polyuria (excessive fluid in droppings) and dark spots under the skin, and paling, often followed by sudden death..
  • Temperature too high - It has been suggested that brooding at too high a temperature or humidity can delay feather emergence.

INDENTED LESIONS ON BEAK

  • Bites from cage mates - Separate if problem persists
  • Beak tip caught in cage wire - Check cage is appropriate for chicks.
  • Beak too soft-low calcium diet - Use CalciBoost 5 times a week whilst chick is growing.
  • PBFD (Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease) - Visit vet. Commonly affects Cockatoos and Eclectus parrots but has been seen in most species. Hard to identify in young chicks except as excessive begging when the crop is full. In birds that are ready to wean or have been weaned symptoms may be as follows: abnormal feather growth, slow crops, constant bacterial infections, delayed feather emergence.

BLOODY LESIONS INSIDE MOUTH

  • Bite wounds from siblings - Separate if problems persist. Visit vet if concerned. Use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel to prevent infection.
  • Other - Visit vet.

SWELLING AND DISCOLORATION OF HEAD, NECK AND CROP

  • Bite wounds from siblings - Separate if problems persist. Visit vet if concerned. Use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel to prevent infection.
  • Pharyngeal or oesophageal puncture - Visit vet.
  • Crop burns - Often accompanied by vomiting, refusal to feed, lethargy, head held back. Guardian Angel and Visit vet. After treatment, smaller meals will need to be fed more frequently. If an antibiotic is used, use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel after course has been completed.

BALLOONING OF SKIN

  • Visit vet

AIR IN CROP

  • Slow feeding, swallowing air with food - Increase the speed at which food is fed to the chick. If the food backs up into the chicks mouth, stop feeding until the chick has swallowed and cleared the mouth. Extra care must be taken when spoon feeding to ensure that the chick does not choke.
  • Forcing air into crop with syringe - Make sure that there are no air bubbles in the mixture. If necessary, pack the mixture down inside the syringe before feeding.
  • Fermentation of food in crop - Give Potent Brew directly to the beak. Also use in your hand-rearing food. Make sure that all the food in the crop has gone before feeding the chick again. If the crop is not emptying, it may need to be emptied by the breeder, veterinary advice should be taken if you are unfamiliar with this process.

DIARRHEA

  • When a bird, chick or adult, is suffering from diarrhea it is at risk from becoming dehydrated. An adequate water supply must be available to the bird at all times and using Guardian Angel, which contains electrolytes, will improve your birds ability to adsorb the water. Care should also be taken to distinguish between diarrhea and polyuria (excessive fluid in droppings). Potent Brew will help to settle the digestive system if the problem is associated with dietary or infection factors.
  • Infection-viral/bacterial/yeast - Use Potent Brew and Guardian Angel. Visit vet if problem persists
  • Parasitism-protozoa, worms - If chick has been weaned use an appropriate wormer. If the chick has not been weaned, Visit vet for an appropriate product.
  • Contamination of food/ water - Use Saniclens in drinking water (not water used for making up hand-rearing food). Use cooled, boiled water for mixing hand-rearing food. Keep food in air-tight containers. Always mix fresh hand-rearing food each feed. If using soaked seed, use Saniclens in the water used for soaking.
  • Malnutrition - Review diet, if using a home-made formula, use Daily Essentials3 to ensure adequate vitamin levels and ProBoost SuperMax to achieve the correct protein level.
  • Intestinal Hemorrhage - starvation. Visit vet.
  • Excessive milk products - Birds cannot digest lactose (found in milk) and so reduce the amount of these products given as much as possible.
  • Excessive vegetables or fruits in diet - reduce the amount fed.
  • Abrupt change in diet - It is better to introduce different types of food gradually. Loose droppings caused by a change in diet should disappear in a few days. Use Potent Brew to assist this process.
  • Food allergy

EXCESSIVE URINE

  • Low % solids - Check the mixing instructions of the hand-rearing food, use less water. Make sure the formula is mixed well each time it is taken from the bowl.
  • Vitamin D Toxicity - Visit vet
  • Congenital Kidney disease - It may be necessary to see a vet about this condition.
  • Polyoma viral infection - Visit vet. Symptoms include crop stasis, bruising, dark spots under the skin, and paling, often followed by sudden death..
  • Too high mineral content in food - Check you are not using excessive supplementation in your hand rearing formula. Contact our advice service to check. Check that any supplements in use are being used according to the manufacturers instructions. Check that the water supply is not high in minerals.

NASAL DISCHARGE

  • Too cold - Increase brooder temperatures .
  • Sinusitis - Visit vet. Use Potent Brew after any courses of antibiotics.
  • Foreign body in nostrils - Unless you are fully confident that you can remove object, seek veterinary advice.
  • Vitamin A deficiency - Unlikely if using a commercially formulated hand-rearing food. Supplement 'home-made' rearing food with Daily Essentials3.
  • Infection - Bordetella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Bacterial. Visit vet. Use Potent Brew after any course of antibiotics.
  • Aspiration of food - (food has been inhaled). If symptoms persist visit vet.
  • Dusty environment - Use water dishes to increase humidity, change bedding material. Review house-keeping regime.
  • Low environmental humidity - Use water dishes to increase humidity.
  • Allergies ? - The identification of allergies is a very difficult thing to do and advice should be sought for methods used in isolating the problem.

LABOURED BREATHING, PANTING

  • Aspiration of food - (food has been inhaled). If symptoms persist visit vet.
  • Chick too hot - Reduce brooder temperature.
  • Infection - Pneumonia. Guardian Angel. Visit vet. Use Potent Brew after any courses of antibiotics.
  • Obesity - Use a lower energy hand-rearing formula. Make sure that you are not feeding too much. If using a 'home-made' formula, use Daily Essentials3 to increase the availability of the existing protein and if necessary, use ProBoost SuperMax to increase the amount of protein in the food.
  • Abdominal pain Potent Brew. Visit vet
  • Respiratory Parasites - Visit vet

HEMORRAGE WHEN FEATHER PULLED

  • Polyoma virus - sometimes other systemic infections. Visit vet
  • Possible Vitamin K deficiency - Use one of the Daily Essentials range. In severe cases, an injection may be necessary, Visit vet


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